Sunday, July 27, 2014



Lo que me hace siempre incrédulo acerca de estas teorías sobre el origen de la vida es que, entre otras cosas, el sistema de datación de fósiles está basada en una continuidad de las condiciones climáticas y atmosféricas de la tierra, cuando los propios científicos confirman que hemos tenido muchas variaciones climáticas , impactos de meteoritos, erupciones volcánicas, las edades de hielo y tantos factores que pueden haber perturbado el "reloj" que da la hora en el universo, el mundo y la vida.


Valdemir, the scribe


The amount of ice that a glacier loses through erosive or evaporative processes.
The collection of gas and dust to form larger bodies like stars, planets, and moons.
The act or process of modification of an organism or its parts that makes it more fit for existence under the conditions of its environment.
An organism that lives in an oxygenated environment.Aerobic
An environment that contains oxygen.
An organism that lives in an environment with no oxygen.
An environment that contains no oxygen.
A phylogenetic domain containing cells that lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles, whose characteristics include the ability to produce methane and often tolerance to extreme environments of high salt, heat, and temperature.
ATP (energy for life)
The abbreviation for adenosine triphosphate (C10H16N5O13P3), which is the universal energy for cellular metabolism.


A phylogenetic domain containing cells that lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles, whose characteristics include a wide variety of physiological and morphological attributes, including a distinct cell wall structure and nearly ubiquitous distribution in the environment.
Banded Iron Formations (BIFs)
Finely layered sedimentary rocks formed by the precipitation of metals in relation to microbial activity.
A way to identify and measure the differences or similarities between organisms. Commonly the genome is used for this.
The Big Bang Theory
The Universe began about 10-20 billion years ago with a cosmic “explosion” allowing the universe’s known matter and energy to spring forth following the expansion of the universe (which is still happening today).


Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
A mineral composed of calcite and carbon atoms linked to 3 oxygen atoms. It can be precipitated from water solutions and secreted by organisms to form a skeleton or shell.
Carbon (C)
A key element on Earth, carbon is used in many life processes that organisms store in their bodies (proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids) and when the organism dies, most volatile organic materials disperse and all that is left is carbon (i.e. coal is the result from plants dying and the accumulation of carbonized films).
Cell wall
A tough, flexible, or rigid layer that surrounds the cell membrane and provides cells with structural support and protection.
Common Ancestor
The common descent of a group of organisms.
Cosmic Rays
Product of energy from the sun in the form of Nitrogen and other elements.
Critical Free Thought
Process of actively and skillfully applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating ideas. Striving to build ideas on the basis of facts and scientific inquiry.
Photosynthesizing bacteria that produce oxygen, use water as an electron donor, and often form microbial mats.


Darwinian Transition
Marks the time when cell walls formed and captured molecular components key to the genesis of the 3 domains of life.
The removal of debris (dust to boulders) from glaciers by erosion of wind and water.
DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid
A macromolecule that is the main component of chromosomes and is the material that transfers genetic characteristics in all life forms.
An environment that contains little oxygen.


Earth’s Magnetic Field
Lines of magnetic force extending from the South Pole to the North pole that has equal and opposite charges at either end.
E.coli (Escherichia coli)
A common bacteria (found in your lower intestine) that has been studied intensely because of its small genome size and ease of growth.
Chemical material containing an atom (the smallest unit of an element composed of a nucleus containing protons and neutrons and electrons surrounding the nucleus).
Planets that are flatter at the poles than the equator.
Embryonic Characteristics
The shape, size, color, and other characteristics of an organism at its earliest stages of development and maturation.
A phylogenetic domain containing eukaryotic cells or multicellular organisms, which have a membrane-enclosed nucleus and usually other organelles.


The remains, traces, or imprints of once-living organisms preserved in the Earth’s crust.


Molecular unit of heredity (the passing of traits to offspring) among organisms.
Gene sequences
Are used for phylogenetic studies (the study of evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms), and are highly preserved between Bacteria and Archaea.
Genetic Code
The instructions in a gene that tell the cell how to make a specific protein. It is universal and optimal.
The entire genetic code of an organism (contains information and instructions on how to build every single part of a living organism).
Glaciers (continental ice sheets)
A large mass of ice on land that is extremely slow moving.


Helium (He)
One of the most abundant elements and second lightest in the Universe. Very rare on Earth, it is very common in the Sun and gas planets, believed to be one of the first elements produced from the Big Bang.
Horizontal (lateral) gene transfer
A non-reproductive method (no cell division) that is the movement of genetic material between organisms that do not necessarily need to be related.
Human Genome Project
An international project that mapped and sequenced the entire human genome, completed April 2003.
Hydrogen (H)
One of the most abundant elements and lightest in the Universe and one of the most abundant elements on the Earth’s surface (not in the atmosphere) and in the sun, believed to be one of the first elements produced from the Big Bang.
A question based on knowledge obtained while formulating the question that may help explain observed patterns, behaviors, outcomes.


Icebergs (oceanic ice sheets)
A large piece of ice that has broken off a glacier (or ice shelf) and is floating freely in open water.
A rock formed by the solidification of a magma (a mass of melted rock that originates deep in the crust or upper mantle), before or after it reaches the surface.
An atom that has gained or lost electrons and has a net positive or negative electrical charge.
Iron (Fe)
A metal that is one of the most common elements on Earth especially in the outer and inner core.




Litmus Test
A simple test using filter paper to determine pH (acidity) by changes in color; red = acidic and blue = basic (alkaline).


Multicellular animals
A piece of rock or metal (a meteor) that comes from outer space, survives its passage through the atmosphere, and impacts the surface of the Earth.
A small microscopic organism that can be either Bacteria, Archaea, or Eukarya.
Micron (µm) or Micrometer
10-6 of a meter or 1 millionth of a meter.
Milky Way
A barred spiral galaxy that contains our Solar System (the sun and 8 planets).
Mineral precipitation
When dissolved minerals drop out of saturated solution to form crystals (solid form).
Molecular Phylogeny
The relatedness of organisms through time using their genetic components (DNA and RNA).
Molecular Sequence
The process of determining the order of DNA molecule terminations.
A previous biological classification called a kingdom that contains unicellular microorganisms, which are now called the Bacteria and Archaea.
A change in a DNA sequence that can be the result of DNA copying mistakes during cell division, exposure to radiation or chemicals, or infection by viruses.


Naked RNA planet
A time in Early Earth when RNA was not contained within a cell; RNA was free-flowing.
Rotating cloud of gas (hydrogen and helium: main components of our sun) and fine dust (chemically similar to materials on Earth.

The act or process of naming.


Da Valdemir Mota de Menezes

Carl Lineaus era un botanico svedese che ha aiutato l'umanità a capire la vita sul pianeta Terra nelle sue molteplici forme. Lineaus ha sviluppato un sistema per classificare la specie che è ancora utilizzato dagli studiosi di tutto il mondo. Gli organismi viventi sono classificati in base alle loro caratteristiche morfologiche.

Nel 1758 pubblicò la sua opera più importante, "Systema Naturae", che cataloga le cose viventi in tre regni (animale, vegetale e minerale) e ogni specie ha ancora ricevuto un nome scientifico di un binomio. Il suo lavoro è stato molto importante, e il regno minerale è stato poi abbandonato e abbiamo aggiunto altre tre regni in nuove e più aggiornate tassonomia,  Woese
contribuisce alla ricerca scientifica, dando una nuova visione '"albero della vita" . La tassonomia dello scienziato è Lineaus in modo gerarchico: la vita, dominio, regno, phylum, classe, ordine, famiglia, genere e specie. La loro classificazione è largamente usato da entrambi sostenitori del creazionismo ed evoluzionismo, aggiungendo sé diverse correnti filosofiche e teologiche. Durante la sua vita, Linneo fatto diverse revisioni del suo lavoro, l'aggiunta di nuove specie di animali e piante al loro catalogo degli esseri viventi.

La classificazione di Linneo si basava su una logica già stabilito e può servire come base per andare avanti sulla riclassificazione degli esseri viventi con le scoperte del ventesimo secolo degli altri tre regni di microscopiche creature. Tutti gli esseri viventi sono composti di cellule, bisogno di cibo, la necessità di respirare, sono in grado di riprodursi e hanno una composizione chimica costituite da sostanze organiche e inorganiche. Questo annuncio è stato recentemente introdotto regni: Monera, funghi e protisti.

Saturday, July 19, 2014


I'm a creationist, and in the last 30 years studied this subject with a sincere heart and with an open mind to accept facts. Evolutionists are many gullible, they believe that chance as sophisticated built a universe that functions as a gear in the macro world and the micro world.
Being creationist requires faith, but to be an evolutionist requires much more faith. The theory of evolution can not be proved nor reproduced in the laboratory. The theory of evolution is based on assumptions that can not be tested. Challenge evolutionists to make a new species, or to make energy or matter from nothing, and if they could do it, I would conclude that a very superior intelligence who have created energy, matter and life, as needed intelligent men.
  Using the subterfuge of millions of years to explain the origin of life is demagoguery. The theory of evolution is a classic departure in style for atheists and materialists deceive their conscience about the origin of life. The theory of evolution is a mental setback. These days I finished reading the book the philosopher and Roman orator Cicero called "The Nature of the Gods". Two thousand years ago Cicero justified his belief in deities, by pure observation of the universe and the order that reigns. The disorder and chaos can not be responsible for the cosmic order that works perfectly following the laws of physics and chemistry in the astronomical world and microscopic world.
  I have a degree in Biological Sciences and am doing this course to be convinced that the theory of evolution has something more usable. Darwin did not even know there was DNA and he'll be the head of a theory about the origin of life??


Um cogumelo gigantesco que ocupa área equivalente a 47 estádios do Maracanã

Ele cobre (880 hectares da Floresta Nacional de Malheur, no leste do Oregon. ostoyae Armillaria, popularmente conhecido como o cogumelo de mel, começou a partir de um único esporo microscópico. O fungo gigante se estende por 5,6 quilômetros. A descoberta veio depois que Catherine Parks, uma cientista da Estação de Pesquisa do Pacífico Noroeste, em La Grande, Oregon, em 1998, após uma grande mortandade de árvore que começava com a  podridão das raízes, no leste da floresta de Prairie City. 
“Eles são comestíveis, mas não  tem o melhor gosto”, disse Tina Dreisbach, uma botânica e micóloga do Serviço Florestal dos EUA em Corvallis, Oregon. “Eu iria colocar muita manteiga e alho sobre eles.”  Antes, em 1992, um outro cogumelo da espécie ostoyae Armillaria foi encontrado em estado de Washington, abrangendo uma área de 1.500 hectares, perto de Mount Adams, tornando-se o maior organismo conhecido na época.
Como é possível um único fungo ficar tão grande? Os cientistas que estudam esta espécie de fungo, postularam que o enorme tamanho pode ser uma função do clima seco no leste de Oregon. Os esporos têm dificuldade em estabelecer novos organismos, abrindo espaço para os veteranos se espalharem. Sem a concorrência de outros espécimes o Armillaria tem sido capaz de crescer e se espalhar sem controle. Os cientistas querem aprender a controlar o Armillaria porque ele está matando as árvores, apesar disso, os cientistas querem perceber o propósito desse cogumelo na natureza para os próximos milhões de anos.

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